Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts (JOSHA) 

JOSHA is a novel multi-disciplinary, multi-lingual, non-profit open-access electronic journal that publishes all types of publications and contributions, including textbooks, audios and videos in all fields of science, humanities, and arts. Submitted articles and contributions undergo editorial review. In order to avoid "Semmelweis Effects", biased judgements, or undue delays of publication, JOSHA abstains from peer-reviews.


JOSHA is listed in Research Gate and currently indexed in Microsoft Academic, WorldCat – OCLC, Crossref, ROAD (Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources),, and Scilit.


You can also follow JOSHA on Facebook and LinkedIn.


“Knowledge that is not communicated is wasted knowledge”

Manuscripts submitted for JOSHA will undergo review by JOSHA's Editorial Board and rating within 7 days. There is no "peer-review". Upon acceptance, your paper will receive a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and appear in the Journal. The authors alone are responsible for the contents of their publication.

All JOSHA articles are made publicly accessible via the Internet without any restrictions or payment by the reader.

PDF versions are freely available for download and provide an easy way for users to print copies themselves.

As part of our copyright and license agreement, JOSHA articles may be reproduced without formal permission or payment of permission fees. As a courtesy, however, we suggest a donation in support of JOSHA’s open access publications.

Reproduction of pictures, figures or tables from any article is permitted free of charge and without formal written permission from JOSHA or the author, provided that the figure or table is original and that proper attribution of authorship and the correct citation details are given as acknowledgment.

Currently, publication in JOSHA is free of charge. Journal management and article processing cost are born by the nonprofit International Academy of Science, Humanities and Arts (IASHA) e.V., the BioThera-Roland-Mertelsmann-Foundation and voluntary donations.


“Ownership belongs to the scientists and artists.”

The copyright of the submitted papers will remain with the authors. Papers in JOSHA may be published elsewhere in the original or revised version. JOSHA will also accept important articles that have been previously published elsewhere. Any issue of the copyright is the responsibility of the authors.

Authors grant JOSHA a license to publish the article. Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified. Any third party may not use the material for commercial purposes. 

The terms and conditions of publishing articles in JOSHA are outlined in detail under Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.

Open access content of JOSHA is freely available online. Through licensing their work under CC BY-NC, authors grant readers the right to unrestricted dissemination and re-use of the work.

This liberal licensing will facilitate the transfer and growth of scientific knowledge. The Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) recommends the use of CC BY for the open access publication of research literature, and many research funders worldwide (e.g. the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 framework program, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Max Planck Institutes, Wellcome Trust, Australian Governments and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation) endorse or mandate that research they have supported be published under CC BY.  

Where an author is prevented from being the copyright holder (for instance in the case of employees of the US government, Commonwealth governments or other governments), minor variations may be required. In such cases the copyright and license statement in individual articles will be adjusted. Authors requiring a variation of this type should inform JOSHA during or immediately after submission of their article. 


“Better together - together better":  Join IASHA e.V. by Membership 

The International Academy of Science, Humaninties and Arts (IASHA) e.V is a non-profit association and a major sponsor of the journal JOSHA. IASHA e.V. offers membership to individuals and institutions (e.g. universities, academic departments, labs, hospitals, companies and societies) to support scientists and artists who publish in JOSHA. 

IASHA e.V. and the BioThera-Roland-Mertelsmann-Foundation are interested to keep publication in JOSHA free of any author charge as long as possible.

Benefits for members of IASHA e.V. of Iinclude:

  • The sustained preservation of a money-saving option to publish under liberal license conditions
  • An increased exposure for yourself and your organization by showcase sections in the journal
  • A yearly update on the financial situation of IASHA e.V.
  • Personal invitations to academic and artistic events supported by IASHA e.V.
  • Tax deductibility of donations and membership fees

To become a member or to find out more, please contact the IASHA e.V. homepage under

If you are a researcher who would like your institution, company or society to become a member, please contact IASHA e.V.



Editorial Board

Senior Editors:


Prof. em. Dr. Drs. h.c. Roland Mertelsmann,

Roland is founder of JOSHA, Editor-in-Chief and Editor of the section "Medicine". He is also Co-Chair of IASHA (International Academy of Science, Humanities, and Arts), a non-profit association. He is a hematologist, oncologist and professor at the University Medical Center, Department of Oncology and Hematology in Freiburg, Germany. Amongst others, Roland is known for his scientific work in the fields of hematology, oncology, and stem cell transplantation. He started his career as a medical student at the Universities of Göttingen and Hamburg, Germany and the King’s College School of Medicine London, UK. After his graduation at the University of Hamburg, he mainly contributed to the isolation of the blood stimulating growth factor G-SCF during a fellowship in Hematology and Clinical Oncology at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer New York, NY, USA. In 1985, he became professor and head of the Department for Hematology and Oncology at the University of Mainz, Germany, and since 1989 at the University of Freiburg, Germany.

Language skills: English, German.


Prof. Dr. Gerhard Steinmann,

Gerd is co-founder of JOSHA, Co-Editor-in-Chief and Editor of the section "Medicine". He is also Chair of IASHA (International Academy of Science, Humanities, and Arts), a non-profit association. He is a pathologist, psychologist, and professor at the Medical Faculty, University of Kiel, Germany. He graduated at the University of Hamburg, Germany. At the Department of Pathology at the University of Kiel and at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA, he focused his research on the aging of the immune system. In 1985, he joined Boehringer Ingelheim, Biberach, Germany and held management positions in Research and Development, International Project Management, Pharmacovigilance, and Drug Clinical Research in the Oncology, Immunology, and Virology therapeutic areas.

Language skills: English, German.


Dr. Sascha Lange,

Sascha is co-founder of JOSHA and Editor of the section "Machine Learning". He is also founder and CEO of two software companies that develop and distribute innovative technologies for the mobile internet and collect and analyze data. After graduating at the University of Osnabrück, Germany, he worked several years as a scientific assistant and obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Freiburg. Germany. His thesis focused on deep reinforcement based on visual perception. His scientific interest lies in the field of machine learning regarding both, research, and implementation. After successfully attending several times the RoboCup (Robot Soccer) and developing Massively Multiplayer Online Games, he currently focuses on the development of analyzing tools for big data.

Language skills: English, German.


Dr. Stephan Seiler,

Stephan is co-founder of JOSHA and Editor of the section "Arts". After working as a music dealer in Basel and Zürich, Switzerland, Stephan studied classical archaeology, archaeology of the Roman provinces, and ancient history at the University of Freiburg, Germany. He obtained his Ph.D. with a thesis focused on Roman villa settlements in the region of Trier, Germany. For two years, he worked at the Rheinisches Landesmuseum in Trier, Germany and curated an exhibition about poverty in the ancient world. Stephan's scientific interests include ancient art, iconography, and cultural transfer.

Language skills: English, German.


Associate Editors:


Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer,

Zazie-Charlotte is a medicine student at the Albert-Ludwigs-University in Freiburg in Breisgau and an Assistant Editor of JOSHA as well as an Arts section Editor. She is currently working on her doctoral dissertation concerning cancer research and antigen interaction with a special focus on the role of B-cells in cancer regression and progression. In addition to that, she is working in the field of literature as the author of short stories in English and German.

Language skills: English, German, French.


Anusha Venkatraman, M.Sc.

Anusha studied Microbiology in Chennai, India and graduated from a Master program Biomedical Sciences (International Masters in Biomedical Sciences - a binational program of Freiburg, Germany and Buenos Aires, Argentina). She worked in the research group of Prof. Dr. Christoph Borner during her Master thesis on the role of deregulated autophagy and apoptosis in polycystic kidney disease. Apart from her role as Assistant Editor of JOSHA, she also aspires to join a PhD program in Freiburg in the field of molecular medicine.

Language skills: English, German, Hindi, Tamil.


Dr. Yaneth Ortiz,

Yaneth studied microbiology and obtained her PhD in Basic Biomedical Sciences with an emphasis in immunology from Universidad de Antioquia in Medellin Colombia, her thesis was done in the transplant immunology section of the Grupo de Imunologia Celular e Inmunogenetica. During her doctoral studies, she spent one semester at University of Chicago, USA as a research volunteer. After graduation, she worked for two years as a postdoc at UniversitätsSpital Zürich in Switzerland in the Neuroimmunology and MS research section of the Neurology department. Her main research focus has been T cell immunology

Language skills: English, Spanish.


Wolfgang Newerla

His great musical curiosity gave the baritone an early reputation as a singer with the most interesting repertoire of his field. After engagements in Ulm and Freiburg, he has been a guest at many important national and international opera houses such as the Theater an der Wien, the Vienna Volksoper, the Teatro Real in Madrid, the Opéra National de Lyon, the Staatsoper Berlin, the Deutsche Oper am Rhine, Staatsoper Hannover and festivals such as the Ruhrtriennale and the Schwetzingen Festival since1999.

In June 2014 he debuted with great success at the Staatsoper Munich in a new production of Zimmermann's soldier (Kirill Petrenko/ Director: Andreas Kriegenburg). Recently he was seen in Calixto Bieitos production of Janáček AUS EINEM TOTENHAUS at the Staatsstheater in Nuremberg. With Zimmermann's soldiers, he will make his debut at the Teatro Real in Madrid in the spring of 2018.

Besides the opera, Wolfgang Newerla focuses on the concert sector. As a concert performer, he is very popular all over Europe - mainly in Spain, as well as in China, the USA and Russia.

Language skills: German, English, French, Spanish


Dr. Marie Brendle

Marie graduated in Medicine in 2015 and obtained her MD degree from Freiburg University in 2017. She currently studies Music and Musicology at Lyon 2 University, France, and piano and singing at the Ecole Nationale de Musique in Villeurbanne, France. She also is 1. Dan in judo and practices capoeira and salsa.

Language Skills: French, German, English, Spanish



Assistant Editors:


Dr. Bujar Bajçinovci,

Dr. Bujar Bajçinovcireceived a Dr.Sc. degree in Technical Sciences in the field of Architecture and Urbanism at the University of Sarajevo, and he is a lecturer of Architectural Design at the University of Prishtina, Kosovo. His research interests focus on Sustainable Architectural Design and Environmental Pollution impact in public health.

Language Skills: English, Albanian.


Dr. Med. Valeria Shlyakhto,

Dr Valeria Shlyakhto obtained her degree in Human medicine from the First Pavlov Medical University in Saint Petersburg, Russia, she obtained her Promotion as Haematology with Magna cum laude from the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität in Heidelberg and today she is a physician at Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Department of Haematology and Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation

Language Skills: English, German, Russian, Greek.


Dr.Med. Rebeka Javorniczky

Rebeka is an assistant physician from Hungary at the Faculty of Medicine - University of Freiburg. She graduated 2015 at the Semmelweis University of Budapest and wrote her thesis about systemic amyloidosis, a rare hematological disease. After moving to Germany she continued this project beyond her clinical work and carried on studying patients with amyloidosis in the Departement of Hematology and Oncology in Freiburg.

Language Skills: English, German, Hungarian.


Yi-Hsuan Lo M.Sc,

Yi-Hsuan Lo has a bachelor in Food Science and Biotechnology, a master degree in Biochemical Science and Technology, and has worked in important academic and research institutes related to translational cancer research in Taiwan.

Language Skills: English, Taiwanese, Chinese, Mandarin.


Soma Almasi M.Sc.

Soma studied Psychology at Nottingham University, Psychotherapy and Counseling Psychology at Regents College, London, and obtained an M.Sc. in psychology research methods at University College London. Her research focused on Neurophenomenology and Neurofeedback. She currently continues her research interests in the context of a Ph.D. program.

Language Skills: English, Arabic, Persian, Kurdish.


Prf. Dr. Eugen carasevici.

Dr. Eugen Carasevici is working as a Professor at Regional Institute of Oncology in Romania. He is also a Professor and Consultant of Immunology and Laboratory Immunology in Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, St. Spiridon Clinic and Emergency County Hospital and Laboratory of Immunology & Genetics.

Languages skills: Romanian, English



Dr. Dragoş Carasevici,

Dragoş is Lecturer at the German Studies Department of the „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iaşi, Romania, and PhD of the same university and of Université de Genève, Switzerland, with a thesis on Friedrich Dürrenmatt’s adaptations and stagings (2011). He works in the field of German and Swiss Studies as well as in the field of literary translations and Theatre Studies. He is also one of the editors of “Acta Iassyensia Comparationis”, a Romania-based international journal for Comparative Literature.

Language Skills: German, English, French, Romanian.


Dr. Laura Carasevici,

Laura has a PhD in Psychology (University of Porto, Portugal) and a PhD in Philology („Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iaşi, Romania). She teaches Psychology at the Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences of „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iaşi and she is also a literary translator.

Language Skills: English, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian.



Chiara Salabè, MD, MPhil, MSc,

 Chiara Salabè, an Italian-German national, is a doctor and currently finalizing her

doctoral dissertation on AB0 incompatible living donor kidney transplantation. Before

starting a new career in medicine she had been a professional in the field of international development and last worked for the World Bank in Washington DC. She graduated from the University of Rome La Sapienzawith honours degree in political science and then specialised in development policies and economics at the University of London with a Master of Science from SOASand a Master ofPhilosophy from UCL. After a successful career she left the World Bank to follow what had been her long time dream to become a doctor and recently graduated from the University of Freiburg Medical School.

Languages skills: Italian, German, English and French.




Managing Editor:


Bernardin Doerr,

Bernardin studied to be a Chemist at the University of Freiburg. However, chose to work as a freelance Financial Advisor in the private client business in Freiburg. In 2002, he started his own company in Financial consulting.

Language skills: English, German.


María Fernanda Sandoval,

María Fernanda is an excellent Cellist from Venezuela, who studied at the conservatoy of Music "Simón Bolívar" in Caracas, Venezuela. At present she studies German and Spanish literature, and linguistics at the University of Freiburg, Germany.

Language skills: Spanish, German, English.



Section Editors


Dr. Stephan Seiler,

Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer,


JOSHA Philosophy, Ethics and Law


Felicitas Holzer, M.Sc.,

Felicitas is co-founder of JOSHA. She studied economics and philosophy in Munich, Germany and graduated in Biomedical Sciences after joining a bi-national Program (International Master in Biomedical Sciences) between Freiburg, Germany and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Her focus in a Master Program in Philosophy at the University of Cambridge, UK is in Bioethics and Philosophy of Sciences. Furthermore, she is involved in two research projects in Buenos Aires, Argentina, related to informed consent in research using whole genome sequencing procedures.

Language skills: English, German, Spanish, French.


Dr. Ignacio Mastroleo,

Dr. Mastroleo works on human health research ethics and theories of justice. He has a PhD in Philosophy from the University of Buenos Aires. He is Assistant Researcher from National Scientific and Technical Research Council of Argentina (CONICET) and works at the Program of Bioethics in the Latin American Social Sciences Institute of Argentina (FLACSO). He has been a member of the research ethics committee of the Oncology Institute “Angel H. Roffo”, and, since February 2015, he is a member of the Post-Trial Responsibility Workgroup of Multi Regional Clinical Trials (MRCT) Center of Harvard and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, United States.

Language skills: English, Spanish.



Prof. Dr. María Laura Böhm,

María Laura is a Professor at the Faculty of Law and Social Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina), representative of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), permanent Professor at the PhD Programm in Criminal Law of the University San Carlos de Guatemala (Guatemala), and visiting Professor in different universities in Latin America, Europe, and China. She is a founding member of two Research Groups (CEPOC – Buenos Airesand GLIPGö – Göttingen/Germany) and Fellow of the ALPEC (Latin American Society for Criminal Law and Criminology). She obtained her Degree in Law at the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina, 1999) and her PhD in Social Sciences at the University of Hamburg (Germany, 2010). Her main research interests are Criminal and Security Policies, as well as the link between Transnational Corporations and Human Rights violations in Latin-America.

Language skills: English, German, Spanish.


JOSHA Life Sciences


Dr. Evguenia Alechine,

Evguenia graduated in Biochemistry at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. She joined the International Master Program in Biomedical Sciences (IMBS) and obtained her M.Sc. from the University of Buenos Aires. Afterwards, continuing the topic of her Master Thesis, she obtained her Ph.D. in Biochemistry at the University of Buenos Aires. She is currently working in scientific communication as scientific editor.

Language skills: English, Spanish.


Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Christoph Borner,

Christoph graduated from Biology and obtained his PhD in Biochemistry/Cancer Biology at the University of Basel, Switzerland. He was a postdoctoral student at the Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. He is currently full professor in Medical Cell Research at Freiburg University,Germany, the director of the Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine, and the director of the International Master Program in Biomedical Sciences of the Universities of Buenos Aires, Argentina and Freiburg, Germany.

Language skills: English, German.


PD Dr. Rainer Claus,

Rainer is currently a "Privatdozent" of Medicine and attending physician at the Department of Medicine I (Oncology, Hematology, Stem cell transplantation) at Freiburg University Medical Center, Germany. He is an internationally recognized expert in the field of epigenetic mechanisms in leukemogenesis.

Language skills: English, German.


JOSHA Medicine


Prof. em. Dr. Drs. h.c. Roland Mertelsmann,

Prof. Dr. Gerhard Steinmann,


Dr. Benjamin Koziner,

Benjamin is a physician from Argentina. He is an internationally recognized expert in Haematology and Oncology, with a focus on leukemias and lymphomas, with previous positions at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA, as well various leading positions in the US and Argentina. He is currently an attending Physician at Alaska Native Medical Center Oncology Clinic, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.

Language skills: English, Spanish.


Dr. Jerry O. Stern,

Jerry received his BS (with honors) from The City College of New York, NY, USA where he majored in Biology and Chemistry.  He was awarded an M.D. degree from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, NY, USA where his thesis research included identifying the unique structure function relationship of the iron porphyrin ligands of cytochromes P-450.  Jerry completed is Internship and Residency in Internal Medicine followed by a fellowship in Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Bellevue Hospital and New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.  He served as an Attending Physician at Bellevue Hospital-NYU Medical Center for almost 20 years where he cared for atients, both private and clinic, and taught medical students and physicians in training. During this period he also served as an investigator and consultant to numerous technology and pharmaceutical companies in the areas of HIV, viral hepatitis, human herpes virus and human papilloma virus infections. Jerry recently retired from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Ridgefield, CT, USA where he was Vice President and Global Therapeutic Area Head Medicine for Virology and Infectious Diseases. His pharmaceutical expertise includes the design of early and late stage clinical trials, pharmacovigilance, clinical development strategy and regulatory science. 


JOSHA Artificial Intelligence, Modeling and Simulation


Dr. Sascha Lange,


Dr. Frank Jäkel,

Frank is a recognized expert in the field of Cognitive Science. He was a professor for Cognitive Modeling at the University of Osnabrueck, Germany and published numerous publications in his field. He worked as a postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with Josh Tenenbaum.

Language skills: English, German.


Jona Boeddinghaus,

Jona earned degrees in Computer Science, Cognitive Science and Philosophy and gained experience at the Fraunhofer Institute during his studies. Jona is an expert in business software development. After several years in industry he founded his own venture craut interactive. Jona is the creator and patent-owner of Playoke, the world’s first Kinect-based interactive group fitness solution. Jona is COO of PSIORI, overseeing development of big data tools.

Language skills: English, German.


In Memoriam

Prof. em. Dr. Hans-Günter Hager

Günter was Editor of the section "Philosophy, Ethics, and Law". He was a specialist in Civil Law, Commercial Law, Comparative Law, and Private International Law from the University of Freiburg, Germany. He has been professor at the Universities of Marburg, Jena, and Freiburg, and visiting professor at Houston, TX, USA, Strasbourg, France, Poitiers, France and Nanjing, China Universities. He was also Professor emeritus and Director emeritus of the Institute for Foreign and International Private Law. He died on February 19th, 2017.