The “Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts – JOSHA” has been initiated to create a novel internet platform to access the broad diversity of important discoveries and creativity in the fields of Science, Humanities and Arts. Read more ...

ISSN: 2364-0626 Volume 4, Issue 2

The Applicability of the Alien Tort Statute to Human Rights Violations by Private Corporations

Hannah Dittmers

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.296

The Supreme Court of the United States in April 2017 announced to decide on an issue that is not uniformly assessed by US circuit courts: The highest US court granted the petition for certiorari on the question whether private corporations can be sued under the Alien Tort Statute of 1789, a rather cryptic US law that allows foreign plaintiffs to sue defendants before US courts for their violations of international (human rights) law. Among the circuit courts, the famous Kiobel decision of the Second Circuit was the only opinion that denied that corporations can be held accountable under the Act. Now the Supreme Court is going to rule on the contentious question, the answer to which will possibly have implications for the human rights litigation worldwide. Affiliation: University of Michigan Law School.

Scientific cooperation between Italy and Israel: A perspective looking to the future

Mario Pagliaro

Affiliation: Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Palermo, Italy

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.294

From renewable energy through neuroscience, from chemistry to nanotechnology, the scientific cooperation between Italy and Israel touches many fields and involves hundreds of scholars and students in both countries. We identify the main research policy factors that led to this successful outcome, and those that might drive forthcoming cooperation between these two Mediterranean countries whose science linkages have a long and significant history.


Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.295

This article is part of a series of short stories published in the Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts by the young author Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer, who received the "Jean-Paul" Award in 2013 and the "Tom Sawyer" Award in 2012 for her work. Her last story "Prom Night" (published in Volume 4, Issue 1) was written in English, but this time JOSHA is publishing one of her German stories. Someone is awake at night. We don’t know her name and we don’t know where she is or why she woke up. The only thing we get to know is how this young girl experiences the moments of silence and the warm feeling of beeing sure that everyone she cares about is sleeping safe and peaceful in their beds while she wanders through a lonely, but beautiful night. And maybe she isn’t really alone after all... Dieser Artikel ist Teil einer Kurzgeschichtenreihe der jungen Autorin Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer, die 2013 den „Jean-Paul“ Award und 2012 den „Tom Sawyer“ Award für ihre Arbeit erhalten hat.

The Law or: The affliction (Das Gesetz oder: Die Heimsuchung)

Hans-Joachim Behrendt

Affiliation: Criminal Law Department, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.291

The article follows the life story of Oedipus as it is told by Sophocles in “King Oedipus”. The drama shows, that Oedipus´ fate is nearly inescapably determined by marks, that early traumatic incest with his mother has left on his character. Thus the Sophoclean play as a whole is the continuous description of a merciless duel between Oedipus and his mother, who either appears in a preoedipal form as the Sphinx or as an oedipal figure. The method of interpretation here applied apparently is based on psychoanalysis. The article supports the opinion, that modern psychological- psychiatric understanding of the parent – child – incest is hardly ahead of the view taken by Sophocles in ancient times. [Article in German] Picture by Carole Raddato from FRANKFURT, Germany.

Derivation of a Shortened Research Instrument for Measuring Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Attitudes in a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Training Program

Arvind Venkat, Arnie Aldridge, Shannon Kearney, John Radack et al.

Affiliation: Program Evaluation and Research Unit, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.290

The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (AAPPQ) is a survey for evaluating the attitudes of clinicians towards patients with alcohol use disorders. A locally-developed research instrument for a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) training program, the Survey of Attitudes and Perceptions, incorporates the AAPPQ to measure changes in the attitudes of healthcare professionals pre- and post-training. To ease the burden of the research instrument, a derivation study was undertaken using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to derive fewer statements from each factor of the AAPPQ. The original 30-statement AAPPQ was reduced to 13 statements, representing the six factors of the AAPPQ and showing qualities of coherence, non-redundancy, and reliability. The 13 corresponding Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire were also included in the revised SAP instrument.

Commercial Agents (Council Directive) Regulations 1993: English and Scottish commercial courts interpretations of the law reflect reality

Charles Mak

Affiliation: Faculty of Law, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.289

This article seeks to analyse whether the ways Commercial Agents (Council Directive) Regulations 1993 have been interpreted prove that English and Scottish commercial courts understand commercial law as a mirror to the changing nature of commercial practices. This article is divided into two parts. The first part will examine those main confusions that arise from the Regulation. Furthermore, the article will discuss whether the English and Scottish commercial courts have clarified their scope of application and ensure their efficiency in protecting commercial agents by their interpretation of the regulations.

The Growth of Pharmaceutical Business in Borno State, Nigeria, 1976-1999

Usman Al-amin, Halima Baba Shehu , Fati Mohammed Ngaran

Affiliation: Department of History, University of Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.286

Pharmaceuticals, especially drug distribution, are so priceless that no nation can survive without them. This business has virtually touched the lives of people in so many ways. This work focuses on pharmaceutical business in Maiduguri, Borno State of Nigeria from 1976 to 1999. Primary and secondary sources generated from interviews and documentary data from libraries and other centers formed the bedrock of the data used herein. The primary sources included: interviews with present pharmaceutical operators, random sample interviews with wholesalers, retailers, peddlers, pharmacists, and individuals of the Borno State Ministry of Health, NAFDAC officials as well as some of the oldest operators of pharmaceutical stores in Borno State.

The Role of Community-Based Agricultural and Rural Development Programme in Poverty Reduction in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria: 2005-2009

Usman Al-amin, Halima Baba Shehu , Fati Mohammed Ngaran

Affiliation: Department of History, University of Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.285

The Community Base Agricultural and Rural Development Programme (CBARDP) in conjunction with International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD subsequently referred as CBARDP/IFAD) is an important poverty reduction programme. The programme contributed to the improvement of the lives of the people, particularly the vulnerable in poor rural participating areas, which also helped in the prevention of degradation of the environment. This study examines the role of the programme in poverty reduction in the participating communities of Guba, Kaliyari, and Kurnawa in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria from 2005–2009. In doing so, examination of relevant materials and conduction of interviews with some of the beneficiaries of the scheme and staff of the programme formed the sources of data used in analysing the impact of the programme.

Individuality and integrity of humans in the modern age: Considerations of a natural scientist

Werner Schempp

Affiliation: Institute of Human Genetics, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.284

We owe the unexpected and rapid progress in medical research and therapeutic methods to the far-reaching scientific knowledge of the past decades. Nowadays, the Internet makes information available worldwide within seconds, and, through social media, creates a "reality" that can hardly be verified. On the one hand, this development makes the modern people in the high-tech regions of our world striving, more than ever, for individuality and self-realization. On the other hand, these technical possibilities, such as interventions in reproductive medicine, organ transplantation, advances in cloning techniques, or the development of artificial intelligence, favor a "de-individualization" of the human being. Art can be a mediator for overcoming this completely polar development in today's science. [Article in German] Acknowledgments: I thank Drs. Birgitta Gläser, Ingvo Broich, Michael Leipoldt, and Michael Wolf for critically reading and suggesting improvements to this article.

Safeguarding Academic Freedom in the 'Masterplan Medical Studies 2020' (Sicherung der Lehrfreiheit im „Masterplan Medizinstudium 2020“)

Frank Wertheimer

Affiliation: Krauss Law, Lahr, Germany

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.283

Recently, the German government has planned to reform the medical school education system. Under the heading “masterplan medical education 2020” a commission composed of science and health ministers has been developing proposals for practical relevance and reinforcing the proportion of general medicine. Specifically, it is planned to introduce a mandatory rotation of general medicine in the practical year of medical school, which will have to be performed by a general practitioner accredited by the public health insurance. To this end, general practitioners are thought to participate in teaching medical students during the practical year on a voluntary basis. Furthermore, general medicine is supposed to become a mandatory part of the final oral and practical state exam which takes place after the practical year.

Prof. Dr. em. Gottfried Schramm "Versäumte Begegnungen II Anfang Mai 1805 in Weimar: Ein Freundespaar verbessert seine Balladen - Missed encounters II Mai 1805 in Weimar: Goethe and Schiller discuss their ballads"

Stephan Seiler

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.2.282

Gottfried Schramm Anfang Mai 1805 in Weimar: Ein Freundespaar verbessert seine Balladen Versäumte Begegnungen wurden schon oft geschildert. Königin Elisabeth von England hat ihre gefangengehaltene Rivalin 1587 nicht im Garten vom Schloss Fotheringhay aufgesucht. Ebenso wenig empfing der kaiserliche Feldherr Albrecht von Wallenstein 1634 im Feldlager von Pilsen einen schwedischen Unterhändler – Aber es hätte geschehen können. Die Folge der acht geschilderten Begegnungen haben in Mußestunden Gestalt angenommen, die ein Freiburger Historiker im Ruhestand sich ausgiebiger als früher gönnt. Auch wenn er sich diesmal die Maske eines fabulierenden Erzählers aufsetzt, geht es nicht um Belletristik, sondern um Geschichte, die sich wirklich ereignet hat. Nur muss man sie diesmal aus Szenen und Wortwechseln herauslesen, zu denen es leider nicht gekommen ist.

ISSN: 2364-0626 Volume 4, Issue 1

JOSHA Editorial Volume 4 Issue 1

Evguenia Alechine

Affiliation: JOSHA

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.275

With this editorial, we are closing the first issue of 2017. Even though this issue brings many outstanding contributions to our journal, we also lost one of our beloved colleagues. Professor Günter Hager passed away, being our last two articles dedicated to him. On the other hand, we are proud to have started this issue with the contribution of the Nobel Laureate Prof. Erwin Neher, who shared his discovery of ion channels and their role in Pharmacology and Biomedicine. Moreover, this issue also counted with another contribution by Dr. Bujar Bajçinovci showing the architectural reflection on Italo Calvino's ‘Invisible Cities.’ Other highlights were the publication of Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer's first short story, ‘Prom Night,’ and Stephan Seiler's first of eight stories by Gottfried Schramm called ‘Missed Encounters.’ Prof. Fereshteh Ahmadi published her review on the ethnic identity of Iranian immigrants from a macro-sociological perspective.

Professor Dr. Günter Hager in Memoriam

Boris Paal, Uwe Blaurock, Florian Asche

Affiliation: Faculty of Law, Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.273

In memoriam Günter Hager: Obituary speeches in German by his former colleagues and friends honouring Günter Hager's life, professional activities, and personality on February 28, 2017. [Article in German] Prof. Dr. Boris Paal, M.Jur. (Oxford) is Dean of the Faculty of Law of the Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg. He is Director of the Institute for Media and Information Law, Dept. I: Civil and Economic Law, Media and Information Law, at the Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg. Professor Dr. Uwe Blaurock has been a full professor at the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg since 1995 , where he was Director of the Institute of Economic Law from 1995 to 2011. From 2002 to 2004 he was Dean of the Faculty of Law. In 2011 he became Professor emeritus. Since 1999 he has been a concurrent professor at Nanjing University, and since 2001 he has been President of the German-Chinese Law Association. Dr. iur.

Günter Hager 1943-2017

Roland Mertelsmann

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs Universität, Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.272

On 19 February 2017, Prof. Dr. Günter Hager, member of the JOSHA Editorial Board for the Section "Philosophy, Ethics and Law", died at the age of 73 years. He contributed decisively to the success of JOSHA in the conception of our journal, the content design, and development, as well as his own important contributions. Until his retirement in 2011, he was a professor of civil law with a focus on International Private Law. After his retirement, Günter Hager increasingly dealt with questions of ethics and the environment and nature conservation, publishing many of his great works in JOSHA. With him, we lost not only a great legal scholar and an important editor of JOSHA but also a wonderful friend who was broadly interested in literature and music and whose narratives were, as it were, creative, humorous, and linguistically refined. One of his favorite aphorisms from his inexhaustible fund of quotations was "What is to be dismissed this minute, no eternity will return.

Enough. Concerning me. - Summer School 2017 in Wittenberg

Evangelisches Studienwerk e.V. I ohner Straße 25 58239 Schwerte

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.271

Enough. Concerning me. Different facets of one statement – encouraging and setting limits at the same ime. We want to arouse curiosity, stimulate new approaches and think out the future. At the Summer School 2017 in Wittenberg, in the middle of the Reformation anniversary, we want to broaden our horizons and get personal: letting ourselves be concerned. On over 100 pages we have collected details on the seminars, workshops and events for you. They focus on the general topic – and are interdisciplinary, outward-looking and interreligious. You can see it from the structure of this booklet: just as the German and English appear side by side, in the Reformation Summer many educational experts will complement and challenge one another with international perspectives in over 30 seminars. Their individual styles are represented in the seminar descriptions. The general topic arose from some hard thinking by undergraduates and doctoral students exactly a year ago.

Ethnic Identity from a Macro-Sociological Perspective: Second-generation Iranian “immigrants”

Fereshteh F. Ahmadi

Affiliation: Professor in Sociology, University of Gävle

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.266

A feeling of chosenness can result in isolation from other nations and ethnic groups. As it seems, such a feeling of ethnic chosenness may have led to a tendency toward ethnocentrism and in some extreme cases, towards racism found among some Iranians (30%-40% according to the world value survey). Such an ethnocentrism may have negative effects on the identity construction of young people, particularly those outside Iran. In the present article, based on studies conducted among Iranian-Swedish and Iranian-American young people, I will try to shed light on this problem. Key words: Racism, Iranians, Second-generation “immigrants”, Ethnocentrism, National identity, Ethnic identity

"Missed encounters" by Gottfried Schramm

Stephan Seiler

Affiliation: JOSHA

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.267

Missed encounters have often been described. Queen Elizabeth of England did not visit her captive rival in the garden of Fotheringhay Castle in 1587. Nor did the imperial commander Albrecht von Wallenstein receive a Swedish subcontractor in the camp of Pilsen in 1634. But it could have happened. This series of eight described encounters has taken shape in leisure hours, which a retired Freiburg historian now has more extensively than before. The essays are not about fiction, but about history, which has really happened. Only one should read between the lines because, unfortunately, the encounters did not take place in reality. The eight "missed encounters" published by the Freiburg-based historian Prof. Dr. em. Gottfried Schramm will appear in the next few weeks as a series in the Journal of Science, Humanities, and Arts. In the first episode, the Tsarina Katharina II is visited by an anonymous guest. Will a past happiness avert an approaching mischief? [Article in German]

Short Stories Series: "Prom Night"

Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs-Univerity Freiburg

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.265

This article is the first of a series of short stories by the young author Zazie-Charlotte Pfeiffer, who received the "Jean-Paul" Award in 2013 and the "Tom Sawyer" Award in 2012 for her work. SUMMARY: Marco has always been a dreamer and the creator of his own little world. Tonight he is dreaming and reflecting about past and future, lets his gazes fly over a sleeping city and searches for roots that he didn’t even know he lost. A glimpse of future possibilities, a moment of breath in silence and the reflections of a stranger on his own life. INSTITUTION: Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

Complexity of Iterative Model - Architectural Integrated Design as an Evolutive Transdisciplinary Strategy. Case Study: A City Without a River

Bujar Q. Bajçinovci, Florina Jerliu

Affiliation: University of Prishtina, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Kosovo

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.264

Contemporary challenges should encourage new explorations in order to administer new urban solutions; thus, assuring better and higher quality of life. The meaning of transdisciplinary design consists of different professions closely related to the architectural design targeting for better and qualitative design solutions, which with new findings exceed the conventional and traditional disciplinary barriers. This study investigated the downtown of Prishtina city focussing on urban design issues, pollution, ecology, and sustainable urban design. The research method consists of empirical observation through wide centre zone with an accent to the urban water management plan as a contemporary reflection to the past decisions of Prishtina municipality.

Architectural Reflection on Italo Calvino’s Invisible Cities

Bard Bajçinovci, Kaltrina Thaçi, Bujar Q. Bajçinovci

Affiliation: University of Prishtina, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Kosovo

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.261

Cities actually endure a considerable lack of space for much needed urban development. Moreover, nowadays contemporary architectural challenges are extensive and complex social issues. Furthermore, present challenges represent fundamental city necessities or a broad of society demands, which we must take into consideration. Hence, we must make the necessary preparations for direct urban actions on fulfilling those issues from the best possible known urban strategies. Urban planning is a design process with a primary course to protect the environment, to manage urban infrastructure as a whole integrated system, and deliver the most appropriate style for living. In relation to sustainability and ecology, a qualitative urban design can significantly improve condition, and quality of life of urbanites. This study, has conceptually researched a design model of high-rise structures with its proportions mainly focussing on future urban planning structures.

Ion Channels: Their Discovery and their Role in Pharmacology and Biomedicine

Erwin Neher

Affiliation: Max-Planck Institute for biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen

DOI: 10.17160/josha.4.1.260

The concept of bioelectricity emerged in the late 18th century, based on the experiments of Galvani and Volta. Sixty years ago Hodgkin and Huxley showed that the nerve impulse is a result of permeability changes of the nerve membrane. This provoked the question of what the molecular mechanisms of such permeability changes might be. In 1976, Bert Sakmann and myself were able to show that the so-called ion channels –proteins that gate ion fluxes across membranes- mediate these responses. Research over the last 40 years has shown that ion channels are not only present in electrically excitable cells, such as in nerves and muscles, but also in basically all cell types of our body, mediating a variety of physiological functions. We now know that they are prime drug targets and that dysfunction of ion channels underlies a variety of diseases.

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