The “Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts – JOSHA” has been initiated to create a novel internet platform to access the broad diversity of important discoveries and creativity in the fields of Science, Humanities and Arts. Read more ...
Die Freiburger Opernsängerin Kim-Lillian Strebel wird von der International Academy of Science, Humanities and Arts gefördert.
Felicitas S. Holzer, Stephan Seiler
We congratulate Kim-Lillian Strebel who is part of the opera ensemble at the Freiburg Theater on her brilliant performance as Fiordiligi in Mozart’s opera 'Così fan tutte'. This young artist has been awarded a one-year scholarship by the International Academy of Sciences, Humanities and Arts (IASHA). We are happy to present a portrait of an interesting and passionate young lady succeeding in the opera world. Read more about the Interview with Kim-Lillian! [Article in German]
Philippe Merz, Frank Obergfell
Renewing Europe – an interview with Dr. Markus Kerber who has been the executive director of the Federal Association of German Industry (BDI) since 2011. The following interview between the Thales Academy for Economy and Philosophy Freiburg, Germany, and Dr. Kerber has previously been published in the journal agora42, issue 03/2016. agora42 is a philosophical business journal. The fact that there is need of a journal that brings together economic and philosophical considerations tells us a lot about our current time – a time in which it is a difficult task to stay on top of economic and social issues. Thus, agora42 aims at keeping oversight and exposing complex economic and social processes in order to give a most comprehensive orientation to the readers. Each issue of agora42 addresses a specific topic and sheds light on it from various perspectives. 10.000 exemplars are currently circulated and published every three month in German-speaking countries. www.agora42.
Evguenia Alechine, Werner Schempp, Daniel Corach
The Y chromosome is a genomic niche for genes involved in male gamete production. The existence of an azoospermia factor (AZF) in its long arm is a key genetic determinant for spermatogenesis since its deletion is associated with infertility. Deletions in the AZFc region are the most frequent known genetic cause of male infertility. This region contains eight gene families involved in spermatogenesis, including Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) and the Chromodomain Protein Y (CDY) genes. AZFc displays significant variation across the male population; nonetheless, the phenotypical consequences of some of these variants remain unclear. Many Y-chromosome geographically differentiated haplogroups have been defined in the human population. However, the information available on the Y chromosome sequence in GenBank belongs only to the European haplogroup R. Recent studies have shown that high mutation rates have driven extensive structural polymorphism among human Y chromosomes.
Felicitas S. Holzer, Roland Mertelsmann, Christoph Borner
INSTITUTION: Institut für molekulare Medizin und Zellforschung, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. The International Master in Biomedical Sciences (IMBS) team invites you to the Symposium “Science, Ethics and Arts”. IMBS is a joint Program and collaboration between the Albert Ludwig University Freiburg and the University of Buenos Aires. We annually welcome students from all parts of the world. We warmly invite you to attend the Workshop "Science, Ethics and Arts", which is subject to registration from Monday, October 10 to Thursday, October 13, 2016. This Workshop is an integral part of the two-year Master program in Biomedical Sciences. Lecturers from the Albert Ludwig University Freiburg, the Thales Academy Freiburg, the University of Buenos Aires, FLACSO Buenos Aires, and the National University of Mexico will address topics related to the ethics of human health, science, technology, and research.
Felicitas S. Holzer, Roland Mertelsmann, Christoph Borner
INSTITUTION: Institut für molekulare Medizin und Zellforschung, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. The International Master in Biomedical Sciences (IMBS) team invites you to the Symposium “Science, Ethics and Arts”. IMBS is a joint Program and collaboration between the Albert Ludwig University Freiburg and the University of Buenos Aires. We annually welcome students from all parts of the world. We warmly invite you to attend the Symposium "Science, Ethics and Arts", which is open to the general public on Friday, October 14. Please register at firstname.lastname@example.org. The Symposium is preceded by a four-day intense Training Course and Workshop. Speakers from the Albert Ludwig University Freiburg, University of Buenos Aires, FLACSO Buenos Aires, the National University of Mexico, and the National Centre of Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg will address topics related to the ethics of human health, environment, science, technology, and research.
Trading participation for access to health-care: A morally relevant feature of participation in clinical research
Silvia Camporesi, Matteo Mameli
INSTITUTION: Department of Social Science, Health and Medicine, King’s College, London, UK. The increasing tendency to run clinical trials offshore in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been extensively documented. In parallel, in high-income countries (HICs) as the US, we are witnessing the emergence of new forms of clinical research where un(der)insured fractions of the population are trading access for participation to health-care to which they would otherwise not have access. We first discuss Wertheimer’s analysis of offshored clinical trials as mutually advantageous exploitative transactions. We then argue that to make sense of what is morally problematic with the offshoring of clinical research it is necessary to broaden the ethical analysis, as there are different kinds of moral wrongs that can be linked to exploitation.
Lamarck attributed the transformation of species to the inheritance of acquired features. Although not completely convincing in his time, even Darwin accepted this concept in his “Pangenesis” Hypothesis. Later experiments to confirm Lamarck`s concept failed. Nevertheless, Lamarck had a pronounced effect on communistic science, research projects and political strategies, closely associated with Trofin D. Lyssenko (1898-1976). Lamarck`s model cannot explain the evolution of species as we understand it today, since his concept stipulated the transformation of arts, not a common ancestral tree for all species. INSTITUTION: Institute of Biology, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany. [Article in German]
Rechenwelten. Computersimulationen machen komplexe Systeme greifbar Mathematical worlds. Computer Simulations allow to comprehend complex systems
The first simulation experiments were performed early in the 20th century. But it was with the development of high performance computing that simulations became a powerful tool in science and engineering. Simulation experiments have some obvious advantages: they are cheaper and easier to achieve than real world experiments, and they allow testing for dangerous outcomes. Their main application consists in simulating complex processes that cannot be calculated right away. To be simulated, a problem has to be given an appropriate mathematical form; the simulation will then be able to approximate possible behaviours of the simulated system. For the philosophy of science, simulation experiments bear questions like: Do simulations really help to understand the ongoing processes? How can one know that the simulated process equals the real process in relevant ways? INSTITUTION: Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Forschung der Universität Bielefeld, 33615 Bielefeld, GERMANY
The current issue of the Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts brings us seven novel contributions to the scientific, humanities, and arts fields. In this issue we have published two master theses in the field of biomolecular sciences, the collaboration between arts and science, the story of Wiktor Feliks Szokalski ‘The Father of Ophthalmology in Poland’, bioinformatic studies on a buffalo prolactin-derived anti-angiogenic peptide, an interview with Michael Röckner, and the paintings of Karin Lotzwi.
Assembly and disassembly of Rad51 filaments on single-stranded DNA: A novel assay to study the dynamics of protein-ssDNA interactions at the single-molecule level
Eukaryotic recombinase protein Rad51 is the key player in homologous recombination, an essential DNA repair mechanism used for the repair of double-strand breaks. Double-strand breaks can lead to chromosome fragmentation and are particularly hazardous during and shortly after DNA replication. The mechanism of homologous recombination is highly conserved between species and recombinase proteins are expressed in a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The primary event in homologous recombination is the formation of a helical nucleoprotein filament on single- stranded DNA overhangs around double-strand breaks. The nucleoprotein filament mediates all subsequent steps of homologous recombination and is capable of performing strand exchange reactions unassisted in vitro. Dynamic assembly and disassembly interactions between the nucleoprotein filament and its DNA substrate are essential for strand exchange.
Homologous recombination is an essential DNA repair mechanism in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It especially plays an important role in the repair of broken or stalled replication forks and is vital for proper chromosome segregation and immunoglobulin diversity. The main event in homologous recombination is the formation of a nucleoprotein filament by RecA-like proteins. Assembly of this filament is the rate-limiting step in recombination and it mediates subsequent stages of repair. Single-molecule experiments have given great insights into the physical mechanism and function of the nucleoprotein filament. In vivo, however, many recombination mediators are involved in the processes and various complex pathways are activated. INSTITUTION: VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics of Living Systems
Art-science collaborations organize interdisciplinary inquiries around research themes of mutual interest. The clash between art’s open-endedness, and its mortal enemy, the hypothesis-driven protocol, make it difficult for scientists to understand how art-science collaborations can be mutually beneficial. As it turns out, the boundary-challenging aspects of these collaborations often force participants to question the context of their research and their discipline’s internal culture. Deep collaborations, especially those aided by technological enhancements, could lead to a sort of creative hypothesis-generating ambiance among participants. Art-science collaborations will and should continue to proliferate as we enter a yet another renaissance showing that interdisciplinary cross-pollination is the mother of invention.
Dieter Schmidt, Andrzej Grzybowski
Wiktor Feliks Szokalski had an eventful life as a physician. He joined the Polish army in 1831. Szokalski was expatriated and immigrated to Germany, where he continued his medical studies in Gießen. He specialized in ophthalmology in Heidelberg and Würzburg. Later, he moved to Paris and became an assistant physician in Dr. Sichel’s Ophthalmological Clinic in 1838. Szokalski gave lectures in ophthalmology in Paris. After completing his French thesis on the topic “Sur la diplopie unioculaire ou la double vision d’un oeil” in 1839, he became co-editor of the Journal »L’Esculape«. In 1844 he was the founder and first president of the Society of German Physicians in Paris. He was nominated head of the hospital in Alice-Sainte-Reine (Burgundy) and kept that position for five years; in addition, he was nominated as railroad physician in Lyon. In 1853 he returned to the Kingdom of Poland and became director of Lubomirski’s Institute of Ophthalmology in 1858.
Pulak P. Kumar, Pratishtha Singh
A 14-amino acid sequence within the buffalo prolactin (buPRL) protein has been identified by BLAST search as similar to that of somatostatin, the gold standard for determining anti-angiogenic activity. A synthetic peptide with the same sequence has been shown to exhibit powerful anti-angiogenic activity, possibly by functioning as a kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) antagonist. In order to further study this peptide’s anti-angiogenic nature, bioinformatics tools were used to analyze its interaction with the bradykinin B1 receptor, which is a component of the KKS. Molecular docking studies were conducted in silico using structures of bradykinin B1 receptor obtained by homology modeling using SWISS-MODEL via the EXPASY web server, as well as a structure of the synthetic peptide that was modeled by the PEP-FOLD de novo modeling server.
Manuela Lenzen, Michael Röckner
Michael Röckner is Professor of Mathematics and Vice-President of the German Mathematicians Association. His research is focused on probability theory, mathematical physics and stochastic analysis, especially modeling, and analysis of stochastic dynamics in Physics, Biology, and Economics. Since October 2015, he is the managing director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Research at the University Bielefeld, Germany. He was interviewed by Manuela Lenzen, Ph.D., one of the leading science writers in Germany.
Amala Berges, Dagmar Faller-Cybulla, Karin Lotzwi
“In my work, I focus on egg tempera on canvas and paper, but also occupy myself with multicolor wood engraving and linocut. My current paintings are compositions of colored surfaces and in part overlapping paint brush work. An additional element in the creating process is to include the empty space (white canvas). I do not intend to create the perspective of realistic representations, on the contrary, the idea is to outline particular motifs with a few strokes and form a contrast to color surfaces. My compositions refer to common, ordinary subjects, with the motifs originating in a different context. For me, the unusual combination of motifs offers new visual angles, new associations. Thus, the creating course continuously changes - thereby time and again surprising myself.”