The “Journal of Science, Humanities and Arts – JOSHA” has been initiated to create a novel internet platform to access the broad diversity of important discoveries and creativity in the fields of Science, Humanities and Arts. Read more ...
Democratic reciprocity model: a justification of continued access to an investigational medicine in clinical research
In this paper, Dr. Mastroleo develops a normative model for the obligation of continued access to an investigational medicine towards research subjects from the perspective of social or distributive justice inspired in the theory of justice of John Rawls. He calls this the democratic reciprocity model. The original idea of the democratic reciprocity model is to claim that the obligation of continued access correlates with the right to health. Thus, within the Rawlsian framework, he argues that the moral reasons giving weight to the obligation of continued access are, indirectly, the principle of fair equality of opportunity and, directly, the duty of justice and/or the principle of fairness that apply to the members of a society understood as a system of social cooperation. INSTITUTION: CONICET, Argentina. [Article in Spanish]
Challenges of Architectural Design in relation to Environment and Air Pollution. A Case study: Prishtina’s first public parking garage
Bujar Q. Bajçinovci
Cities are complex ecosystems with specific phenomenon directly reflected in our health, resources, economic, social and aesthetic fields. It can be conceptually considered that cities are locally and regionally specific. Urban planning is a process with a primary role to protect and use of environment, to manage spatial planning and urban infrastructure as a whole system. In relation to sustainability and implementation of multi-level law reinforcement, urban planning and design can significantly improve quality of life of their urbanites, particularly in relation to air pollution. Surely, long-term plans and strategies have been adopted in Kosovo, but the challenges will remain in implementation and in enforcement of these administrative instructions. Therefore, it is crucial to encourage every action, related to city functionality which will minimize air pollution.
Towards Simulating Carcinogenesis: Modeling and Simulating Carcinogenesis, Hematopoietic Tissue Homeostasis and Leukemogenesis
Roland Mertelsmann, Christoph Borner, Oliver Worm, Maximilian Georg et al.
The previously identified cancer hallmarks (Groten et al. 2016, DOI: 10.17160/josha.3.7.252 ) were described by mathematical algorithms. Subsequently, a computational simulation of carcinogenesis has been developed. In the next step, the proposed algorithms and correlations have been tested, validated and adapted through the simulation (http://mertelsmann.psiori.com/). In a second model, we transferred the insights won from the first simulation to the simulation of hematopoiesis tissue homeostasis and leukemogenesis (http://hem-model.psiori.com/hema_simulation). Our findings indicate that the 10 “Hallmarks” proposed by Hanahan and Weinberg can be assigned to two major groups, “Growth/Apoptosis Balance” and “Genetic Fidelity, Immortality”. Modeling Hematopoiesis revealed one missing Hallmark, “Block of Differentiation”, which we propose to assign to the broader term “Stem Cell Features”.
Understanding and Controlling Cancer: The Hallmark Concept Revisited – Chance, Evolution and Entropy
Jenny Groten, Christoph Borner, Roland Mertelsmann
The overall aim of this investigation was to identify the fundamental phenotypic traits of a cancer cell to develop an “in silico” simulation model and, vice versa redefine the identified characteristics via the established simulation model. Thus, the focus lay on visualization and interactivity of the simulation. To achieve this aim, we addressed the following objectives. In the present paper, the essential “Hallmarks of Cancer” have been identified, based on a literature review. The term “Hallmarks of Cancer” has thereby been adopted from Hanahan and Weinberg (Hanahan & Weinberg 2000; Hanahan & Weinberg 2011) and defines the most fundamental phenotypic characteristics of cancer cells, which are assumed to distinguish the latter from normal cells.
In 64 AD, a fire destroyed large parts of Rome. The reigning emperor Nero, who was looking for areas to build a new palace with gardens, was suspected to be the author. He laid the blame on the generally suspicious Christians, then in Rome some hundred souls, who lived separate from all public ceremonies and celebrated their religion secretly. Humble Christians were tortured and the imperial court sentenced them as arsonists to cruel death penalties; after that whoever confessed to be a Christian was sentenced and the sentences became recognized precedents. Until the early 4th century, to be a Christian was due to death penalty without further detail. Institution: Faculty of Law, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Germany
This special issue of JOSHA is dedicated to the coverage of the second Symposium “Science, Ethics and Arts” that took place on Friday, October 14th at the Haus zur Lieben Hand, Freiburg. This event was organized by the International Master Program in Biomedical Sciences (IMBS) with the sponsorship of JOSHA Journal. In this issue, you will find the presentations of all the invited speakers as well as a coverage of the art exhibition that took place during the symposium. PICTURE: Evguenia Alechine.
Christof von Kalle
The National Center for Tumor Diseases – NCT Heidelberg was founded as an exceptional alliance between the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg University Hospital (UKL-HD), the Heidelberg Medical Faculty, and German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe). The NCT MASTER project is situated at the interface of cancer genomics and clinical oncology to provide comprehensive molecular profiling to selected patients with unmet medical need, and to evaluate the utility of such an approach for informing choices regarding targeted therapy based on the molecular characteristics of the individual cancer. This multidisciplinary initiative has implemented a standardized workflow for patient selection, sample processing, molecular and bioinformatic analysis, technical validation of individual findings, and reporting of results through a dedicated molecular tumor board.
In his presentation, Prof. Borner discusses the varied aspects of prolonging life from a scientific, social and ethical perspectives. These different aspects are reviewed leading to the following recommendations: 1. We should try to improve early diagnosis and targeted treatment regimens to make the life of elderly people more bearable and enjoyable. 2. We have to accept that, at one point, our life ends and we have to give over our spirit and achievement to the next generation. 3. Enjoy every second of your life - Carpe Diem (Roman Poet Horaz, 65 B.C.9). 4. If you want to save lives, you should remove from every person in this world their driver‘s license.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. President Roosevelt first established the National Cancer Institute and, later, President Nixon signed into law the National Cancer Act of 1971 to make the “Conquest of Cancer […] a national crusade”, declaring the “War on Cancer.” The worldwide research efforts focusing on the molecular and cellular biology and clinical spectrum of cancer have led to a better understanding of cancer as an acquired genetic disease, as well as to the importance of evolutionary processes in carcinogenesis and the clinical course of cancer. Based on these insights, novel therapeutic concepts have been developed and are already significantly improving the outlook for patients with cancer. PICTURE: Ludwig Köhler, Sculptures.
This presentation provides a philosophical introduction into the multilayered field of Bioethics. Firstly, it clarifies the somewhat confusing notion of "Bioethics", and then unfolds the key questions that bioethical debate faces today. The following third step discusses five obstacles to a broader discussion and possible solution of those bioethical problems – and gives four concluding hints to what needs to change in order to develop a more intense and open dialogue on those important challenges. PICTURE: Anna Boksa, Anja.
Today we are confronted with a growing loss of biodiversity. All of us agree that we must do something to save the biodiversity. In his lecture, Prof. Hager focuses on the question what is the task of the law in this context. His lecture has three parts. In the first part, he discusses a famous case on biodiversity. The case opens the way to the second part where the efficiency of environmental law is discussed. In the third part, Prof. Hager outlines the structure of a modern ecological environmental law.
In this article, JOSHA's Editor Stephan Seiler reviews the arts exhibition that took place during the Symposium "Science, Ethics and Arts". Herein he presents the work of four artists with four different approaches: the photographer Anna Boksa, the young painter Giulia Musella, the internationally well-known artist John Tun Sein, and the sculptor Ludwig Köhler.
The “socially valuable knowledge” (SVK) principle has been widely acknowledged as one of the most important guiding principles for research involving human subjects. In this presentation, Felicitas Holzer reconstructs the main arguments of the discussion between defenders and debunkers of the SVK principle and offer a third way to consider the social value of knowledge in research studies. PICTURE: John Tun Sein, Untitled 2016.
In this presentation, Dr. Mastroleo defends the view that clinical innovation should be understood, following Levine, as non-validated medical practice. Moreover, he argues that if this is the correct interpretation of clinical innovation this implies that the ethics of clinical innovation are different from (some) clinical research and validated medical practice. PICTURE: Anna Boksa, "Damian".
Pathways in the regulation of clinical stem cell research: harmonization, “double discourse” and alter-standardization
In this presentation, Dr. Vasen explores the regulatory developments in stem cell medicine in the main national jurisdictions. He claims that the field is undergoing a process of diversification and indetify three pathways of regulatory development: international harmonization, "double discourse" and alter-standardization. The presentation is based on previous work published together with Achim Rosemann, Gabriela Bortz, and Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner. PICTURE: Giulia Musella, Woman on a flower meadow.